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Solid Earth An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 7, issue 6
Solid Earth, 7, 1551–1564, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/se-7-1551-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Solid Earth, 7, 1551–1564, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/se-7-1551-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 15 Nov 2016

Research article | 15 Nov 2016

Using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor to detect change in land surface temperature in relation to land use change in Yazd, Iran

Sajad Zareie1, Hassan Khosravi2, Abouzar Nasiri3, and Mostafa Dastorani4 Sajad Zareie et al.
  • 1GIS & Remote Sensing, Institute of Earth Sciences, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • 2Department of Arid and Mountainous Reclamation Region, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
  • 3Department of Ecology and Environmental Management, Protection of the Natural Resource and Environment, Land Cadastre Faculty, State University of Land Use Planning, Moscow, Russia
  • 4Department of Desertification, Faculty of Natural Resources and Earth Sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Abstract. Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land surface processes from local to global scales, and it is one of the indicators of environmental quality. Evaluation of the surface temperature distribution and its relation to existing land use types are very important to the investigation of the urban microclimate. In arid and semi-arid regions, understanding the role of land use changes in the formation of urban heat islands is necessary for urban planning to control or reduce surface temperature. The internal factors and environmental conditions of Yazd city have important roles in the formation of special thermal conditions in Iran. In this paper, we used the temperature–emissivity separation (TES) algorithm for LST retrieving from the TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were used for validation of retrieved LST values. The RMSE of 0.9 and 0.87 °C and R2 of 0.98 and 0.99 were obtained for the 1998 and 2009 images, respectively. Land use types for the city of Yazd were identified and relationships between land use types, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were analyzed. The Kappa coefficient and overall accuracy were calculated for accuracy assessment of land use classification. The Kappa coefficient values are 0.96 and 0.95 and the overall accuracy values are 0.97 and 0.95 for the 1998 and 2009 classified images, respectively. The results showed an increase of 1.45 °C in the average surface temperature. The results of this study showed that optical and thermal remote sensing methodologies can be used to research urban environmental parameters. Finally, it was found that special thermal conditions in Yazd were formed by land use changes. Increasing the area of asphalt roads, residential, commercial and industrial land use types and decreasing the area of the parks, green spaces and fallow lands in Yazd caused a rise in surface temperature during the 11-year period.

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