This study shows the need for a symbiotic relationship between government and research groups for efficient management of geologic data in urban environments. Through its implementation, both the city administration and private companies benefit from the feedback of geologic knowledge acquired during this process, thereby substantially reducing the cost of construction projects and facilitating the development of aquifer management plans.
E. Vázquez-Suñé, M. Ángel Marazuela, V. Velasco, M. Diviu, A. Pérez-Estaún, and J. Álvarez-Marrón
The period between 1991 and 2005 was a time when many western geologists came to the Urals to get a closer look at this famous and extraordinarily rich region. The main reason was an openness policy of the USSR government, when foreigners were admitted to this area that was formerly almost closed. The co-operation of the western geologists with local specialists was very fruitful. The author aimed to describe the most interesting findings in Uralian geology after the learned guests left.
V. N. Puchkov
This paper presents the results of two experiments of revegetation techniques in context of water erosion and mountainous Mediterranean climate. We studied the interest of a wood chip amendment, applied on soil surface (mulch), and its interaction with plant development. The use of different plant species and the monitoring on three growing seasons (with climatic variations) allow us to specify the interest of wood chip mulch to improve revegetation especially in erosion and drought conditions.
V. Breton, Y. Crosaz, and F. Rey
Salt archives in sediments are critical to understanding a number of geochemical processes in the earth surface conditions. This study presents a physical and geochemical survey into aeolian salts in the Chinese deserts to explore their possible climatic implications. The results suggest the aeolian salts are atmospheric origin without local geological limits. It is a latent indicator in onefold depositional environment but not so in diverse conditions. Palaeoenvironmental use should be careful.
We integrated fish-scale pits with mulching to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. The results showed that integrating fish-scale pits with mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing infiltration and decreasing evaporation, and showed greater soil water storage and degree of soil water compensation compared to fish-scale pits alone. In addition, jujube branches exerted better mulching effects than maize straw.
H. C. Li, X. D. Gao, X. N. Zhao, P. T. Wu, L. S. Li, Q. Ling, and W. H. Sun
Following the application of organic amendment treatments, the increased organic carbon and total porosity values, as compared to the control treatment, were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of municipal solid waste resulted in higher levels of microbial respiration from the clay loam soil than from the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse was found for alfalfa residue.
Rocky Mountain National Park is one of the most visited national parks in the United States. 95% of the park is managed as wilderness. This paper examines the impacts of trampling on the vegetation and soil along selected trails. Trail widening and soil loss are the most visible types of trail degradation. Insights into the influence of different factors (use level, topography) can lead to the selection of appropriate management measures to avoid or minimize negative consequences.
J. Svajda, S. Korony, I. Brighton, S. Esser, and S. Ciapala
New stratigraphical, structural, geochemical, and geochronological data from the northern Caribbean orogenic belt indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional piggy-back basin in the lower-to-middle Eocene. This piggy-back basin was transported to the top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic slab as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units.
J. Escuder-Viruete, A. Suárez-Rodríguez, J. Gabites, and A. Pérez-Estaún
We compute a velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of Southern North America, Mexico and the Caribbean. We use a recent technique based on 'ambient noise’ – or continuous seismic records – and a traditional one using earthquakes. Both techniques, together with the increased number of seismic stations in the region, allow us to obtain greater resolution than previous works. Some of its applications are to localize regional earthquakes and simulate ground motions.
B. Gaite, A. Villaseñor, A. Iglesias, M. Herraiz, and I. Jiménez-Munt
Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly made and 15-month-field-aged biochars and biochar–soil mixtures.
A. Mukherjee, A. R. Zimmerman, R. Hamdan, and W. T. Cooper
The aim of this paper is to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008.
S. L. Weyers and K. A. Spokas