Pinch and swell structures: evidence for strain localisation by brittle–viscous behaviour in the middle crust
Summary: We find pinch and swell structures from a mid-crustal zone in Fiordland, NZ are initiated by brittle failure of the strongest layer. Modelling this strain localisation and viscous flow shows material softening is important and structures develop in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow, with strain localisation impacting both bedding rotation and structure formation. We also find strain localising behaviour combined with viscous flow is a viable alternative representation of the middle crust.
Solid Earth, 6, 1045-1061, doi:10.5194/se-6-1045-2015, 2015
Experimental study on the electrical conductivity of quartz andesite at high temperature and high pressure: evidence of grain boundary transport
Summary: Similar to temperature and pressure, grain boundary greatly affects the electrical properties of rocks. However, the relation between the total conductivity, grain boundary and grain interior conductivity for andesite remains unclear till now. In this study, the grain boundary electrical conductivity of quartz andesite was measured, and the conduction mechanism was discussed.
Solid Earth, 6, 1037-1043, doi:10.5194/se-6-1037-2015, 2015
Socioeconomic modifications of the universal soil loss equation
Summary: In addition to physical factors, socioeconomic factors have crucial effects on soil erosion, although the joint study of physical and socioeconomic factors has been limited to date. To address this, the present study aimed to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the universal soil loss equation (USLE).
Solid Earth, 6, 1025-1035, doi:10.5194/se-6-1025-2015, 2015
Magma mixing enhanced by bubble segregation
Summary: We reproduced in an experiment the mixing of two different magmas by bubbles. Bubbles form filaments when dragging portions of one magma into another and thus mingle both magmas. Bubble mixing must be an accelerating process in nature, because formed filaments are channels of low resistance for subsequently rising bubbles. In natural gas-rich magmas, this may be an important mechanism for magma mixing. Natural samples from Axial Seamount show evidence for bubble mixing.
Solid Earth, 6, 1007-1023, doi:10.5194/se-6-1007-2015, 2015
A fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation – a case study in Shunde, China
Summary: A fuzzy intelligent system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established for land potential evaluation. We proposed one new model for feature selection based on the fuzzy measure using the L1-norm method, which can help to construct an index system for intelligent evaluation. The data comes from the “Three Old” project of Shunde, China. It is huge and heterogeneous and is therefore used first for research. The fuzzy intelligent system shows good performance for land potential evaluation.
Solid Earth, 6, 997-1006, doi:10.5194/se-6-997-2015, 2015
Karst bare slope soil erosion and soil quality: a simulation case study
Solid Earth, 6, 985-995, doi:10.5194/se-6-985-2015, 2015
Thickness of the lithosphere beneath Turkey and surroundings from S-receiver functions
Summary: We observed with seismic data in the entire region of Turkey and surroundings the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB). It is located generally between 80 and 100km depth outside the subduction zone. No change of the LAB depth was observed across the North and East Anatolian faults. The LAB of the subducting African plate is observed down to about 150km depth from the Aegean to the east of Cyprus, with a tear at Cyprus.
Solid Earth, 6, 971-984, doi:10.5194/se-6-971-2015, 2015
Structure of the upper mantle in the north-western and central United States from USArray S-receiver functions
Summary: We observed with seismic data the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in the western United States and the mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) in the central United States. In the northern and southern United States, the western LAB (probably of the Farallon plate) is weakly east dipping. There are indications of a west-dipping MLD in between. We interpret this interfingering structure of the mantle lithosphere as a result of the collision of the Farallon and the Laurentia plates.
Solid Earth, 6, 957-970, doi:10.5194/se-6-957-2015, 2015
Landfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysis
Solid Earth, 6, 945-956, doi:10.5194/se-6-945-2015, 2015
Relationship between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)
Summary: The amount of water available to plants in a closed landfill soil is analyzed by laboratory analyses, by using pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and by studying plant coverage. The laboratory analyses and PTFs highlighted the soil's inability to hold water. The closed landfill plant coverage consists of annual species (therophytes) typical of disturbed environments. The soil's low-water content, together with other degraded soil characters, justifies the plant coverage.
Solid Earth, 6, 929-943, doi:10.5194/se-6-929-2015, 2015
A Web-based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation
Summary: Here we aim to demonstrate that a dpatial decision support system based on geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) can profitably address many contrasting demands on our landscape concerning agriculture and environment as well as many land degradation problems. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, highly focused on soil and land conservation, developed in the framework of the SOILCONSWEB LIFE+ project.
Solid Earth, 6, 903-928, doi:10.5194/se-6-903-2015, 2015
Strain localization in brittle–ductile shear zones: fluid-abundant vs. fluid-limited conditions (an example from Wyangala area, Australia)
Solid Earth, 6, 881-901, doi:10.5194/se-6-881-2015, 2015
Revisiting the statistical analysis of pyroclast density and porosity data
Summary: This paper presents a new methodology to treat statistically pyroclast density and porosity data sets introducing a weighting parameter. It also proposes a stability analysis to check if the sample set is large enough for statistical reliability. Finally we introduce graphical statistics to improve distinction between pyroclastic deposits and understanding of eruptive dynamics. An open source R code is supplied that includes all these features in order to facilitate data processing.
Solid Earth, 6, 869-879, doi:10.5194/se-6-869-2015, 2015
Effects of land use changes and soil conservation intervention on soil properties as indicators for land degradation under a Mediterranean climate
Solid Earth, 6, 857-868, doi:10.5194/se-6-857-2015, 2015
Evolution of a highly dilatant fault zone in the grabens of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA – integrating fieldwork, ground-penetrating radar and airborne imagery analysis
Summary: This paper combines fieldwork, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and remote sensing in the jointed and faulted grabens area of Canyonlands National Park, Utah, USA. GPR profiles show that graben floors are subject to faulting, although the surface shows no scarps. We enhance evidence for the effect of preexisting joints on the formation of dilatant faults and provide a conceptual model for graben evolution. Correlating paleosols from outcrops and GPR adds to estimates of the age of the grabens.
Solid Earth, 6, 839-855, doi:10.5194/se-6-839-2015, 2015
Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany)
Solid Earth, 6, 823-837, doi:10.5194/se-6-823-2015, 2015
Assessment of environmental soil quality around Sonepur Bazari mine of Raniganj coalfield, India
Summary: Impact of coal mining on soil was assessed through an integrated environmental soil quality index (ESQI). Biological activity was higher in underground mine (UGM) soil. As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb were higher in opencast mine (OCM) soil, whereas Cd was higher in UGM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in UGM soil. Calculated ESQI, based on total PAHs, loss on ignition, bulk density, Be, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and microbial quotient, was higher for UGM (+10.1%) than OCM soils.
Solid Earth, 6, 811-821, doi:10.5194/se-6-811-2015, 2015
Vegetation in karst terrain of southwestern China allocates more biomass to roots
Summary: The root biomass study of karst (limestone and dolomite) vegetation in southwestern China and even in the word’s karst regions is rarely investigated. The mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest in karst terrain of SW China has higher root biomass, but very high ratio of root to aboveground biomass compared to non-karst subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests. Such findings have significant ecological meanings for vegetation restoration and carbon increment.
Solid Earth, 6, 799-810, doi:10.5194/se-6-799-2015, 2015
Volcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania events
Summary: An integrated soil study was carried out on landslides which have occurred on the steep northern slopes of Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (Italy). The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties along a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon). Nevertheless, only the identification of a layer of thin, finely stratified ash on the top of 2C, by optical microscopy, enabled us to assume this interface to be an impeding layer for water fluxes.
Solid Earth, 6, 783-797, doi:10.5194/se-6-783-2015, 2015
Magnetic observatories: biases over CHAMP satellite mission
Summary: This study of crustal monthly biases' temporal evolution at 42 geomagnetic observatories over 9 years of the CHAMP satellite mission reveals short-period variations and long-term trends in the bias time series, signature of the induced magnetic fields, annual trends in most bias series, distinct oscillatory pattern over the whole time span, and semi-annual variations in all components. Swarm mission data and analysis of these findings will allow a better understanding of crustal bias evolution.
Solid Earth, 6, 775-781, doi:10.5194/se-6-775-2015, 2015