Predicting parameters of degradation succession processes of Tibetan Kobresia grasslands
Summary: We investigated environmental factors and plant functional groups to quantity and identify factors during alpine grassland succession processes. The degree of degradation of alpine meadows may be delineated by development of mattic epipedon and PFG composition. Because relatively few environmental factors are investigated, this approach can save time and labor to formulate a conservation management plan for degraded alpine meadows.
Solid Earth, 6, 1237-1246, doi:10.5194/se-6-1237-2015, 2015
Influence of humic acid applications on modulus of rupture, aggregate stability, electrical conductivity, carbon and nitrogen content of a crusting problem soil
Solid Earth, 6, 1231-1236, doi:10.5194/se-6-1231-2015, 2015
Poroelastic responses of confined aquifers to subsurface strain and their use for volcano monitoring
Summary: When magma chambers inflate, they deform the surrounding Earth’s crust. This deformation affects the pore space available for the water in local aquifers, which in turn leads to pressure variations and water table changes. We can observe these changes in wells, and this study investigates if and how we can utilize them for volcano monitoring. Results show that the hydrological response to deformation helps unravelling subsurface magmatic processes, valuable information for eruption forecasting.
Solid Earth, 6, 1207-1229, doi:10.5194/se-6-1207-2015, 2015
Short-term grazing exclusion has no impact on soil properties and nutrients of degraded alpine grassland in Tibet, China
Summary: Grazing exclusion has been widely adopted to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet. We investigated soil properties and nutrients by comparing free-grazing and grazing exclusion grasslands. The results showed that grazing exclusion had no impact on most soil properties and nutrients, and even caused a considerable decrease in soil TN and TP in the soil surface layer. Nevertheless, climate conditions during the growing season played an important role in controlling the soil quality status.
Solid Earth, 6, 1195-1205, doi:10.5194/se-6-1195-2015, 2015
MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland
Summary: This study evaluated trends in vegetation cover and phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland by applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series obtained by the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2002–2014. The positive trends of the cumulative annual NDVI (77.10%) could be interpreted as an increase in plant productivity in the Inner Mongolia permanent grassland. And the growing season has lengthened by 10.86 days.
Solid Earth, 6, 1185-1194, doi:10.5194/se-6-1185-2015, 2015
Density structure and geometry of the Costa Rican subduction zone from 3-D gravity modeling and local earthquake data
Summary: In this paper, the 3-D density structure of the Costa Rican subduction zone is modeled by means of interactive forward modeling of gravity data. The geometry of the subduction zone is constrained, among other geophysical data, by relocated earthquake hypocenters, taking into account intermediate depth seismicity which provides new information on the plate interface. In the preferred model, the presence of a continuous, steeply subducting slab is interpreted for SE Costa Rica.
Solid Earth, 6, 1169-1183, doi:10.5194/se-6-1169-2015, 2015
Analysis of soil moisture condition under different land uses in the arid region of Horqin sandy land, northern China
Summary: The higher soil moisture content among different land uses was exhibited by the grassland, and followed by cropland, poplar land, inter-dunes and shrub land. The temporal variations of soil moisture in different land uses were not always consistent with the rainfall due to the dry sequence. The infiltration depth exhibited a positive correlation with precipitation under all land uses. This study provided an insight into the implications for land and agricultural water management in this area.
Solid Earth, 6, 1157-1167, doi:10.5194/se-6-1157-2015, 2015
The hydrothermal power of oceanic lithosphere
Summary: Due to a thermal insulation effect of oceanic crust, the seafloor heat flux is predicted to be low over young lithosphere (compared to other cooling models). Consequently, the amount of heat extracted from oceanic lithosphere by ventilated hydrothermal circulation is predicted to be significantly lower than previous models. About 50% of total hydrothermal power is extracted on ridge axes.
Solid Earth, 6, 1131-1155, doi:10.5194/se-6-1131-2015, 2015
Measuring and crust-correcting finite-frequency travel time residuals – application to southwestern Scandinavia
Summary: We present a data-processing routine for robust measurements of relative arrival times of P and S waves, filtered in different frequency bands and recorded at regional networks of seismological stations. We also analyse the influence of crustal structure on the arrival times of P and S waves, and find that arrival times are generally different in different frequency bands in the presence of sedimentary layers. These findings are illustrated using data from southwestern Scandinavia.
Solid Earth, 6, 1117-1130, doi:10.5194/se-6-1117-2015, 2015
Land use effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in calcareous Leptosols in former pastureland – a case study from the Tatra Mountains (Poland)
Summary: The paper shows soil organic carbon sequestration (SOC) rates in calcareous shallow soils in reforested areas in the Tatra Mts., with a particular focus on the different forms of organic matter (OM) storage. Fifty years after the conversion of pastureland to grassland, the emergence of dwarf pine shrub, larch forest, the development of genetic soil horizons as well as SOC sequestration and the occurrence of OM forms in soil, are related to plant community.
Solid Earth, 6, 1103-1115, doi:10.5194/se-6-1103-2015, 2015
Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon
Solid Earth, 6, 1087-1101, doi:10.5194/se-6-1087-2015, 2015
Phase change in subducted lithosphere, impulse, and quantizing Earth surface deformations
Summary: This is a story about the ever-changing surface of our planet and how and why that happens. The first author was thanked by Hess (1960 preprint), but he only watched the theory’s growth from the sidelines. The 10 years that followed brought forth a deluge of evidence. Now 55 years later, no net torque amongst the plates remains, but still without a mechanism. Bowin (2010) demonstrated plate tectonics conserves angular momentum, but few appear to note its existence. This clarifies the mechanism.
Solid Earth, 6, 1075-1085, doi:10.5194/se-6-1075-2015, 2015
Precision of farmer-based fertility ratings and soil organic carbon for crop production on a Ferralsol
Summary: This study showed that resource-poor smallholder farmers can ably rate fields for soil fertility as poor or good but had difficulties in identifying medium-fertility fields. Rating with SOC improved precision to rate medium-fertility fields. SOC and clay content explained the highest yield variances in heterogeneous smallholder farms. A combination of SOC and farmers' field experiences can be affordable approaches to guide fertility management and fertilizer application.
Solid Earth, 6, 1063-1073, doi:10.5194/se-6-1063-2015, 2015
Pinch and swell structures: evidence for strain localisation by brittle–viscous behaviour in the middle crust
Summary: We find pinch and swell structures from a mid-crustal zone in Fiordland, NZ are initiated by brittle failure of the strongest layer. Modelling this strain localisation and viscous flow shows material softening is important and structures develop in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow, with strain localisation impacting both bedding rotation and structure formation. We also find strain localising behaviour combined with viscous flow is a viable alternative representation of the middle crust.
Solid Earth, 6, 1045-1061, doi:10.5194/se-6-1045-2015, 2015
Experimental study on the electrical conductivity of quartz andesite at high temperature and high pressure: evidence of grain boundary transport
Summary: Similar to temperature and pressure, grain boundary greatly affects the electrical properties of rocks. However, the relation between the total conductivity, grain boundary and grain interior conductivity for andesite remains unclear till now. In this study, the grain boundary electrical conductivity of quartz andesite was measured, and the conduction mechanism was discussed.
Solid Earth, 6, 1037-1043, doi:10.5194/se-6-1037-2015, 2015
Socioeconomic modifications of the universal soil loss equation
Summary: In addition to physical factors, socioeconomic factors have crucial effects on soil erosion, although the joint study of physical and socioeconomic factors has been limited to date. To address this, the present study aimed to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the universal soil loss equation (USLE).
Solid Earth, 6, 1025-1035, doi:10.5194/se-6-1025-2015, 2015
Magma mixing enhanced by bubble segregation
Summary: We reproduced in an experiment the mixing of two different magmas by bubbles. Bubbles form filaments when dragging portions of one magma into another and thus mingle both magmas. Bubble mixing must be an accelerating process in nature, because formed filaments are channels of low resistance for subsequently rising bubbles. In natural gas-rich magmas, this may be an important mechanism for magma mixing. Natural samples from Axial Seamount show evidence for bubble mixing.
Solid Earth, 6, 1007-1023, doi:10.5194/se-6-1007-2015, 2015
A fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation – a case study in Shunde, China
Summary: A fuzzy intelligent system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established for land potential evaluation. We proposed one new model for feature selection based on the fuzzy measure using the L1-norm method, which can help to construct an index system for intelligent evaluation. The data comes from the “Three Old” project of Shunde, China. It is huge and heterogeneous and is therefore used first for research. The fuzzy intelligent system shows good performance for land potential evaluation.
Solid Earth, 6, 997-1006, doi:10.5194/se-6-997-2015, 2015
Karst bare slope soil erosion and soil quality: a simulation case study
Solid Earth, 6, 985-995, doi:10.5194/se-6-985-2015, 2015
Thickness of the lithosphere beneath Turkey and surroundings from S-receiver functions
Summary: We observed with seismic data in the entire region of Turkey and surroundings the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB). It is located generally between 80 and 100km depth outside the subduction zone. No change of the LAB depth was observed across the North and East Anatolian faults. The LAB of the subducting African plate is observed down to about 150km depth from the Aegean to the east of Cyprus, with a tear at Cyprus.
Solid Earth, 6, 971-984, doi:10.5194/se-6-971-2015, 2015