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Highlight articles

In this modeling study, we investigate rock uplift at plate corners (syntaxes). These are characterized by a unique bent geometry at subduction zones and exhibit some of the world's highest rock uplift rates. We find that the style of deformation changes above the plate's bent section and that active subduction is necessary to generate an isolated region of rapid uplift. Strong erosion there localizes uplift on even smaller scales, suggesting both tectonic and surface processes are important.

Matthias Nettesheim, Todd A. Ehlers, David M. Whipp, and Alexander Koptev

Fragmentation of continents often involves obliquely rifting segments that feature a complex three-dimensional structural evolution. Here we show that more than ~70 % of Earth’s rifted margins exceeded an obliquity of 20° demonstrating that oblique rifting should be considered the rule, not the exception. This highlights the importance of three-dimensional approaches in modelling, surveying, and interpretation of those rift segments where oblique rifting is the dominant mode of deformation.

Sascha Brune, Simon E. Williams, and R. Dietmar Müller

I present the GHOST (Geoscientific Hollow Sphere Tessellation) software which allows for the fast generation of computational meshes in hollow sphere geometries counting up to a hundred million cells. Each mesh is composed of concentric spherical shells made of quadrilaterals or triangles. I focus here on three commonly used meshes used in the geodynamics/geophysics community and further benchmark the gravity and gravitational potential procedures in the simple case of a constant density.

Valentin Samuel Gischig, Joseph Doetsch, Hansruedi Maurer, Hannes Krietsch, Florian Amann, Keith Frederick Evans, Morteza Nejati, Mohammadreza Jalali, Benoît Valley, Anne Christine Obermann, Stefan Wiemer, and Domenico Giardini

A balanced cross section across the hypocentre of the 2017 Iran-Iraq 7.3 Mw earthquake is presented. The structural style of the area is characterised by inversion tectonics with partial decoupling between the basement and the 10 km thick sedimentary cover. The main shock is located along a low-dipping lateral ramp of the Mountain Front Fault. The balanced cross section indicates that the Mountain Front Fault is the only fault where an 7.3 Mw earthquake may occur.

Stefano Tavani, Mariano Parente, Francesco Puzone, Amerigo Corradetti, Gholamreza Gharabeigli, Mehdi Valinejad, Davoud Morsalnejad, and Stefano Mazzoli

Hydraulic fracturing is known to induce seismic events, which is a concern for large-scale stimulations, for example, for exploitation of shale gas or geothermal energy. In our study on meter-scale hydraulic fracturing for stress measurements, we show that monitoring of seismicity along with refined seismicity location methods offers unique and ample insights into fracture growth processes. Fracture properties derived from seismicity reveal essential information about the stress state, thus helping to constrain other stress measurements.

Valentin Samuel Gischig, Joseph Doetsch, Hansruedi Maurer, Hannes Krietsch, Florian Amann, Keith Frederick Evans, Morteza Nejati, Mohammadreza Jalali, Benoît Valley, Anne Christine Obermann, Stefan Wiemer, and Domenico Giardini

This study shows the need for a symbiotic relationship between government and research groups for efficient management of geologic data in urban environments. Through its implementation, both the city administration and private companies benefit from the feedback of geologic knowledge acquired during this process, thereby substantially reducing the cost of construction projects and facilitating the development of aquifer management plans.

E. Vázquez-Suñé, M. Ángel Marazuela, V. Velasco, M. Diviu, A. Pérez-Estaún, and J. Álvarez-Marrón

The period between 1991 and 2005 was a time when many western geologists came to the Urals to get a closer look at this famous and extraordinarily rich region. The main reason was an openness policy of the USSR government, when foreigners were admitted to this area that was formerly almost closed. The co-operation of the western geologists with local specialists was very fruitful. The author aimed to describe the most interesting findings in Uralian geology after the learned guests left.

V. N. Puchkov

This paper presents the results of two experiments of revegetation techniques in context of water erosion and mountainous Mediterranean climate. We studied the interest of a wood chip amendment, applied on soil surface (mulch), and its interaction with plant development. The use of different plant species and the monitoring on three growing seasons (with climatic variations) allow us to specify the interest of wood chip mulch to improve revegetation especially in erosion and drought conditions.

V. Breton, Y. Crosaz, and F. Rey

Salt archives in sediments are critical to understanding a number of geochemical processes in the earth surface conditions. This study presents a physical and geochemical survey into aeolian salts in the Chinese deserts to explore their possible climatic implications. The results suggest the aeolian salts are atmospheric origin without local geological limits. It is a latent indicator in onefold depositional environment but not so in diverse conditions. Palaeoenvironmental use should be careful.

B.-Q. Zhu

We integrated fish-scale pits with mulching to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. The results showed that integrating fish-scale pits with mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing infiltration and decreasing evaporation, and showed greater soil water storage and degree of soil water compensation compared to fish-scale pits alone. In addition, jujube branches exerted better mulching effects than maize straw.

H. C. Li, X. D. Gao, X. N. Zhao, P. T. Wu, L. S. Li, Q. Ling, and W. H. Sun

Following the application of organic amendment treatments, the increased organic carbon and total porosity values, as compared to the control treatment, were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of municipal solid waste resulted in higher levels of microbial respiration from the clay loam soil than from the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse was found for alfalfa residue.

N. Yazdanpanah

Rocky Mountain National Park is one of the most visited national parks in the United States. 95% of the park is managed as wilderness. This paper examines the impacts of trampling on the vegetation and soil along selected trails. Trail widening and soil loss are the most visible types of trail degradation. Insights into the influence of different factors (use level, topography) can lead to the selection of appropriate management measures to avoid or minimize negative consequences.

J. Svajda, S. Korony, I. Brighton, S. Esser, and S. Ciapala

New stratigraphical, structural, geochemical, and geochronological data from the northern Caribbean orogenic belt indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional piggy-back basin in the lower-to-middle Eocene. This piggy-back basin was transported to the top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic slab as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units.

J. Escuder-Viruete, A. Suárez-Rodríguez, J. Gabites, and A. Pérez-Estaún

We compute a velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle of Southern North America, Mexico and the Caribbean. We use a recent technique based on 'ambient noise’ – or continuous seismic records – and a traditional one using earthquakes. Both techniques, together with the increased number of seismic stations in the region, allow us to obtain greater resolution than previous works. Some of its applications are to localize regional earthquakes and simulate ground motions.

B. Gaite, A. Villaseñor, A. Iglesias, M. Herraiz, and I. Jiménez-Munt

Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly made and 15-month-field-aged biochars and biochar–soil mixtures.

A. Mukherjee, A. R. Zimmerman, R. Hamdan, and W. T. Cooper

The aim of this paper is to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008.

S. L. Weyers and K. A. Spokas

Publications Copernicus